University of Mumbai
Revised Syllabus And Pattern of Question Papers In Microbiology At F.Y.B.Sc (with effect from the academic year 2008-2009)
Revised Syllabus for F.Y.B.Sc Microbiology
Paper I – Fundamentals of Microbiology 90 Lectures
Unit I: Introduction to Microbiology & Prokaryotic Cell Structure and Function 15 Lectures
1.1 History and scope of Microbiology 2 Lectures
1.2 Prokaryotic cell membranes – plasma membrane and internal
membrane systems 2 Lectures
1.3 Cytoplasmic matrix – inclusion bodies and ribosomes 2 Lectures
1.4 Bacterial chromosome and plasmids – source of information 2 Lectures
1.5 Cell wall 2 Lectures
1.6 Components external to cell wall – capsule, slime layer, s layer,
pili, fimbriae, flagella 3 Lectures
1.7 Bacterial endospores and their formation 2 Lectures
Unit 2: Eukaryotic Cell Structure and Function 15 Lectures
2.1 Overview of eukaryotic cell structure and functions 1 Lecture
2.2 The cytoplasmic matrix – microfilaments,intermediate filaments
and microtubules 2 Lectures
2.3 Endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus 1 Lecture
2.4 Lysosomes and endocytosis 2 Lectures
2.5 Eukaryotic ribosomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts 2 Lectures
2.6 Nucleus, nucleolus, cell division, mitosis and meiosis 4 Lectures
2.7 External cell coverings 2 Lectures
2.8 Comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 1 Lecture
Unit 3: Microbial Nutritrion, Cultivation, Isolation & Preservation 15 Lectures
3.1 Nutritional requirements – carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen,
phosphorous, sulphur and growth factors 2 Lectures
3.2 Nutritional types of microorganisms
3.3 Nutrient uptake mechanisms 3 Lectures
3.4 Types of culture media with examples 3 Lectures
3.5 Isolation of microorganisms and pure culture technique 3 Lectures
3.6 Preservation of microorganisms 2 Lectures
Unit 4: Microbial Growth 15 Lectures
4.1 Definition of growth, mathematical expression, growth curve 3 Lectures
4.2 Measurements of growth 6 Lectures
a) Direct microscopic count – Breed’s count, Petroff-Hausser counting
b) Viable count – spread plate and pour plate technique
c) Measurement of cell mass
d) Turbidity measurements – Nepholometer and spectrophotometer
e) Measurements of cell constituents
4.3 Synchronous growth, continuous growth (chemostat and turbidostat) 2 Lectures
4.4 Growth yield 1 Lecture
4.5 Influence of environmental factors on growth 1 Lecture
4.6 Microbial growth in natural environment 1 Lecture
4.7 Counting viable non-culturable organisms – Quorum sensing techniques 1 Lecture
Unit 5: Study of Yeast, Molds, Algae and Protozoa 15 Lectures
5.1 Classification, morphological characteristics, cultivation, reproduction
and significance of:
a) Yeast and molds 7 Lectures
b) Algae 4 Lectures
c) Protozoa 4 Lectures
Unit 6: Study of Viruses, Rickettsia, Clamydia, Actinomycetes & Archaebacteria 15 Lectures
6.1 Viruses – classification of viruses, general characteristics, structure of T4
phage, viral cultivation, inclusion bodies and their significance, lifecycle of
coliphages, lytic cycle and lysogeny 6 Lectures
6.2 Rickettsia – general characteristics, diseases and their vectors 2 Lectures
6.3 Clamydia – general characteristics 1 Lecture
6.4 Actinomycetes – general properties, cell wall types, whole sugar
patterns, characteristics as per new classification and significance 3 Lectures
6.5 Archaea - characteristics of major archaeal groups 3 Lectures
Paper - II – APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY 90 Lectures
Unit 1: Microscopy 15 Lectures
1.1 Concepts 1 Lectures
1.2 Lenses and bending of light 2 Lectures
1.3 The light microscope 6 Lectures
a) Bright field microscopy
b) Resolution of the microscope
1.4 The electron microscope 4 Lectures
a) Transmission electron microscope
b) Scanning electron microscope
1.5 Newer techniques in Microscopy 2 Lectures
a) Confocal Microscope
b) Scanning probe microscope
Eg: scanning tunneling microscope, atomic force microscope
Unit 2: Contrast Enhancement Techniques 15 Lectures
2.1 Dark field microscope 1 Lecture
2.2 Phase contrast microscope 1 Lecture
2.3 Differential interference contrast microscope 1 Lecture
2.4 Fluorescence microscope 1 Lecture
2.5 Staining of specimens 8 Lectures
b) Dyes and simple staining
c) Differential staining
d) Staining of specific structures
2.6 Specimen preparation in T.E.M 3 Lectures
Staining, shadowing with metals, freeze etching
Unit 3: Control of Microorganisms 15 Lectures
3.1 Definitions of frequently used terms 1 Lecture
3.2 Pattern/rate of microbial death 1 Lecture
3.3 Conditions influencing the effectiveness of anti-microbial agents 1 Lecture
3.4 Physical methods of microbial control 6 Lectures
a) Heat: moist and dry
b) Low temperature
d) High pressure
f) Osmotic pressure
3.5 Chemical methods of microbial control 5 Lectures
b) Biguanides – chlorhexidine
e) Heavy metals
f) Quaternary ammonium compounds
g) Surface active agents
i) Sterilizing gases
k) Chemotherapeutic agents
3.6 Evaluation of effectiveness of anti-microbial agents 1 Lecture
Unit 4: Microorganisms in Air and Soil 15 Lectures
4.1 Air microbiology 2 Lectures
a) Types and significance of organisms
b) Techniques of studying air microflora
4.2 Microorganisms in terrestrial environment 4 Lectures
a) Soil as an environment
b) Soils, plants and nutrients
c) Diversity of soil microorganisms
d) Formation of different soils
4.3 Biogeochemical cycles 5 Lectures
a) Carbon cycle
b) Nitrogen cycle
c) Phosphorous cycle
d) Sulphur cycle
e) Iron cycle
f) Manganese cycle
g) Metal toxicity
4.4 Physical environment 2 Lectures
a) Microenvironment and niche
b) Biofilms and microbial mats
c) Microorganisms and the ecosystems
4.5 Examination of microbial populations 2 Lectures
a) Examination techniques
b) Examination of community structures
c) Microbial activity and turnover
d) Recovery or addition of individual microbes
Unit 5: Microorganisms in Water and Wastewater 15 Lectures
5.1 Marine and freshwater environments
a) Water as a microbial habitat 1 Lectures
b) Nutrient cycling 2 Lectures
c) Freshwater environment 2 Lectures
i) Glaciers and permanently frozen lakes
ii) Streams and rivers
d) Marine environments 2 Lecturer
i) Estuaries and salt marshes
ii) Photic zone
iii) Benthic zone
e) Water purification and sanitary analysis 6 Lectures
5.2 Wastewater microbiology 4 Lectures
a) Measurement of waste water quality
b) Waste water treatment
Unit 6: Microbial Interactions 15 Lectures
6.1 Types of microbial interactions 2 Lectures
Mutualism, cooperation, commensalisms, predation, parasitism,
6.2 Human microbe interactions 8 Lectures
a) Normal flora of human body:
Skin, nose and nasopharynx, oropharynx, respiratory track, eye
External ear, mouth, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,
b) Relation between microbiota and the host
c) Gnotobiotic animals
6.3 Microbial associations with vascular plants 5 Lectures
b) Rhizosphere and rhizoplane
d) Nitrogen fixation: rhizobia, actinorhizae, stem nodulating rhizobia
e) Fungal and bacterial endophytes
f) Agrobacterium and other plant pathogens.
1. Safety in laboratory
2. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure
a) Monochrome staining
b) Negative staining
c) Differential staining : Gram staining
d) Staining of specific structures of bacteria
cell wall, capsule, endospores, flagella, spirochaete, metachromatic granules,
lipid granules staining
e) Permanent slides of cyanobacteria (anabaena, nostoc, rivullaria, oscillatoria)
f) Permanent slides of protozoa (amoeba and paramecium)
3. Preparation of culture media
a) Liquid media (nutrient broth)
b) Solid media (nutrient agar. Sabouraud’s agar)
c) Preparation of slants, butts and plates
4. Inoculation techniques
a) Liquid medium
b) Solid medium (slants, butts and plates)
c) Study of colony characteristics
d) Study of motility (hanging drop preparation)
e) Use of differential, selective enriched media
i. MacConkey’s agar
ii. Superimposed blood agar
5. Determination of optimum growth conditions (temperature and pH)
6. Cultivation of yeast and molds
a) Cultivation on Sabouraud’s agar
b) Static and shaker cultures
c) Fungal wet mounts and study of morphological characteristics
d) Slide culture technique
7. Measurement of microbial growth
a) Microscopic cell count (haemocytometer)
b) Preparation of opacity tubes and determination of cell count
c) Viable count (pour plate and surface spread methods)
d) Growth curve of E.coli and determination of generation time (Grp. Expt)
8. Micrometry: measurements of cell dimensions (yeast)
9. Assignment: Contributions of a scientist in the field of Microbiology.
University of Mumbai
Pattern of Question Papers
S.Y.B.Sc(with effect from the academic year 2009-20010)
Revised syllabus for S.Y.B.Sc. microbiology w.e.f. 2009-2010
Paper 1: Concepts in immunology and genetics
Unit 1 : Immunology (15)
1) Innate Immunity (07)
a. Overview of host resistance
b. Non-specific host resistance
c. Natural host resistance - age, stress, diet etc.
d. Physical and Mechannical barriers - skin, mucous mambrane
e. Respiratory system, Gastrointestinal tract, genito-urinary tract, eyes
f. Chemical barriers - basic protiens, bacteriocins, b-lysins and other polypeptides.
2) Immune System (08)
a. Cells, Tissues and Organs of the immune system
b. Cells of Immune system - Lymphoid cells, mononuclear cells, granulocytes, mast cells, dendritic cell
c. Organs and tissues of the immune system - primary and secondary lymhoid organs/tissues
d. Inflamation, fever, phagocytosis
e. Natural killer cells
f. Molecular defence - Cytokines, intergrated host defence, immuno-compromised host.
Unit 2 : Immunology : (15)
1) Antigens (07)
a. Immunology versus antigenicity
b. Factors that influence immunogenicity - foreignness, molecular size, chemical composition, heterogenicity, ability to be pocessed and presented,contribution of the biological system system to immunogenicity - genotype of the recipient, animal, immounogen dosage, route of administratoin and adjuvants.
c. Epitopes/antigen determinants
d. Haptens and antigenicity
e. Immunogenicity of some natural substances- native globular proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids
f. Types of antigens- heteropile antigens, isophile antigens, sequestered antigens,super antigens, bacterial and viral antigens.
2) Immunoglobulins (08)
a. Immunoglobulins- basic and fine structure
b. Immunolglobulin classes and biological activities.
c. Antigen determinants on immunoglobulins- isotypes, allotypes, idiotypes.
d. Immunglobulin receptors.
Unit 3: Medical-Virulence(15)
1) Host-Parasite Interaction. (Attachment and Penetration)
Kosch’s and River’s postulates (01)
2) Microbial Virulence Factors (06)
a. Enzymes: hyaluronidase, collagenase, streptokinase, coagulase
b. Exotoxins: cytolytic toxins, diphtheria, tetanus, botulinum toxin, enterotoxin
c. Endotoxins: structure and function, Limulus assay for endotoxin
d. Virulent organisms: salmonella spp, and its virulence factors
e. Measuring virulence LD50
3)Clinical Infection in Host (04)
a. Establishment, spread and pathological effects
b. Pattern of infection
c. Signs and symptoms
d. Portal of exit, persistence of microorganisms and pathological conditions.
4) Epidemiology of Infectious Disease (04)
a. Epidemiology terminology
b. Measuring frequency – The epidemiologist’s tools
c. Infectious disease Epidemiology.
d. Recognition of an infectious disease in a population in an epidemic
e. Virulence and the mode of transmission
f. Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and pathogens
g. Controls of epidemics
h. Nosocomial infections
i. Global travel and health considerations .
Unit 4: Genetics(15)
Mendelian Genetics: (02)
Genetic terminology, gamates, cross, zygote, gene, locous, alleles, genotype, phenotype.
Mendel’s experimental design.
Mendel’s principle of Segregation, principles of Independent Assortment.
Genetic Information (13)
Gene and its function Central Dogma of life.
Procaryotic, structure of DNA, Double helix, different forms of DNA structure, hybridization of nucleic acids, circularity, supercoiling, topoisomerases. Basic proteins in bacterial chromosome.
Genetic elements: The chromosome, Non-chromosomalgenetic elements, viruses and plasmids, transposable elements.
Unit 5: Genetics (15)
Chromosome Structure of Eucaryotic Cell (10)
Physical properties, concept of linkage groups, linearity of yhe chromosome.
Chromatin structure, euchromatin, heteromatin
Role of histones and non-histone proteins
Structure of condensed chromatin
Nucleosomes , centromere, kinetochores, telomeres
Differences in the chromosomal structure of prokaryotic, eukaryotic cells and viruses.
Features of the genetic code, triple nature, degeneracy, universality, non-overlapping, comma less, wobble hypothesis etc.
Exceptions to code- list different codes and variations.
Unit 6: Taxomony (15)
Species: The Units of Classification, Characterization of species.
The Naming of Species.
The Problems of Taxonomic Arrangement: The phylogenetic Approach to Taxonomy, Numerical Taxonomy.
New approach to bacterial taxomonomy: DNA composition, Nucleic acid Hybridization, Tm, N.A. sequencing, RNA fingerprinting and sequencing, Ribotyping, Fatty Acid Analyses.
Paper 2: Microbial Biochemistry
Unit 1: Chemical Basis of Life (15)
Cellular foundations – cells as the structural and functional units. Cellular dimensions are limited by oxygen diffusion, cytoplasm is highly dynamic, cells build supramolecular structures. Chemical foundations - compounds of carbon and functional groups , macromolecules as major constituents of cells. Three dimensional structure- configuration and conformation. Dynamic steady state of living cell, never at equilibrium with the surrounding, transformation of energy and matter from the surrounding.
Types bonds and their importance- electrovalence, covalent bonds, ester, phosphodiester, thioester, peptide, glycoside bonds. Water- structure and interaction with solute.
Carbohydrate- monsaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides – definition and biological role.
Lipids – definition and biological importance and classification.
Amino acids, peptides and Protiens- Physical and chemical properties. Proteins – 3D structure. Complementary interactions between proteins and ligands.
Unit2: Transcription, Translation (15)
RNA metabolism- DNA dependent synthesis of RNA-DNA polymerases, promoters. Regulation of transcription at various levels.
Specific sequences signal termination of RNA syshtesis
RNA polymerases in eukaryotic cells.
Protein factors required for RNA polymerase 2.
RNA dependent synthesis of RNA.
Protein Synthesis (08)
Stages of protein synthesis
Activation of amino acids
Termination and Release
Folding and Post translational processing.
Unit 3 : Estimation of Biomolecules & Biostatistics (15)
1. Estimation of Biomolecules (10)
A) Macromolecular composition of a Microbial Cell
B) Methods of Elemental Analysis :
Carbon by Styke's method
Phosphorous by Fiske-Subbarow Method
C) Estimation of Carbohydrates by Phenol and Anthrone Method
Estimation of Reducing Sugars by DNSA Method
Detection of Sugars by Aniline-phthalate method
D) Estimation of Proteins by Biuret Method
Estimation of Amino acids by Ninhydrin Method
E) Extraction of Lipids by Soxhlet Method
F) Extraction of Nucleic acids
G) Estimation of Nucleic acids by DPA and Orcinol Method
2. Biostatistics (05)
i) Introduction to Biostatistics
ii) Sample and Population
iii) Data presentation – Dot diagram, Bar Diagram, Histogram, Frequency Curve.
iv) Central Tendency – Mean, Median, Mode Summation notations
v) Standard Deviation, Variance, Q-Test, T-Test and F-test
Unit 4 : Thermodynamics (15)
i) Scope of Thermodynamics
a. Concept of free energy, Enthalpy, Delta G, Standard Free Energy change of reaction, entropy
b. First and Second Law of Thermodynamics
c. Open and Closed System
d. Structure and Properties of ATP, Standard free energy change of hydrolysis of ATP, and other high energy compounds.
e. Energy yielding Mechanisms: Fermentation, Respiration and Photosynthesis
f. Biological oxidation – reduction reactions
Unit 5 : Introduction to Metabolism (15)
i) Metabolism : Catabolism, Anabolism and link between the two.
ii) Concept of biochemical pathways precursor, intermediate and end product
iii) Constitutive & Inducible pathways
iv) Type of Biochemical Pathways : Linear, Branched and Cyclic. (EMP, TCA as examples)
v) Amphibolic and Anaplerotic reactions. Glyoxyllate bypass.
vi) Pool of Basic building blocks ATP and reducing power.
Unit 6 : Enzymology (15)
i) Basic Concepts – apoenzyme, holoenzyme, prosthetic group and cofactors. Allosteric enzymes.
ii) Classification of enzymes.
iii) Michaelis – Menton Equation – Derivation, LB equation and plot.
iv) Effect of Enzyme concentration, Substrate concentration, PH, Temperature on Enzyme activity.
v) Multi-substrate Reactions- Ordered, Random and Pingpong reaction.
vi) Inhibitors of Enzyme : Reversible and Irreversible. Competitive, Non-competitive and Un-competitive inhibition
vii) Koshland-Nemethy and Filmer Model, Monod, Wyman and Changux Model.
viii) Principles of enzyme purification.
Paper III : Applied Microbiology
Unit 1 : Instrumentation : ph Meter, Electrophoresis, Colorimeter (15)
A) pH Meter : (04)
A) The standard hydrogen electrode, Reference electrode, glass electrode, Measurement of pH
B) Colorimeter : (04)
Principle : Working of Colorimeter, Beer's law, Beer and Lambert's Law. Applications of colorimetry in Biological Science.
C) Electrophoresis (07)
i) Principle, Types and Instrumentation
ii) Applications in Separation of Protein, Nucleic acid, fingerprinting, and sequencing.
Unit 2 : Fermentation technology (15)
i) Screening- Primary and secondary
ii) Fermentation Media
iii) Preparation of Inoculum
iv) Types of Fermentations – Aerobic, Anaerobic, Surface, Submerged, Batch, Continuous and Solid State.
v) Fermenter Design.
Unit 3 : Food Microbiology (15)
i) Scope of Food Microbiology and role of Mocrobiologist in Food-Industry
ii) General Principles of Spoilage and Contamination of Food
iii) General principles of Preservation of Food.
Unit 4: Instrumentation : Chromatography, Centrifugation (15)
A] Chromatography – (10)
i) General Principles
ii) Paper Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography
iii) GLC and HPLC
iv) Absorption Chromatography
v) Ion Exchange Chromatography
vi) Gel Filtration Chromatography
vii) Affinity Chromatography
B] Centrifugation : (05)
i) Preparative Centrifuge and its Applications
ii) Analytical Centrifuge and its Applications
Unit 5 : Dairy Microbiology (15)
i) Microbial Flora of Milk, Normal and abnormal flora. Their sources and changes induced by them.
ii) Milk Borne Pathogens
i) Processing and analysis of Milk, Grading of Milk, Platform test, Dye reduction test, DMC, SPC, LPC Thermoduric count, Psychrophilic count, Pasteurization HTLT, LTHT and Phosphatase Test.
ii) Shelf Life, packaging, Storage and Distribution
iii) Milk Products : Preparation of Powder and Sweetened condensed Milk, Butter Cheese (Types and Production of Cheddar and Cottage), Yogurt (Types and production). Other milk products and names of organisms associated with them.
Unit 6 : Microbial Biotechnology (15)
i) Introduction – Biotechnology as an Interdisciplinary science, Biosafety.
ii) Energy and biotechnology – Biofuel, source of biomass, ethanol and methane from biomass, hydrogen production.
iii) Biotechnology and Health care – Use of probes in disease diagnosis and use of monoclonal antibodies in disease diagnosis and treatment.
iv) Biofertilizer, Biopesticide and vermicomposting.
v) Bioleaching, Biosensors and Biochips.
I Preparation of H and O antigens
2 Mitosis and Meiosis
3 Extraction of DNA from onion and E.coli (plasmid DNA, Mini prep)
4 Isolation and Identification of microorganism from soil
5 Virulence factors – Enzymes – Streptokinase, Coagulase, hemolysin, lecithinase, phagocytosis
6 Use of selective and differential solid media : SIBA. XLD, MacConkey's, SMA, CLED, TCBS Hoyle's tellurite agar
7 Use of Biochemical media for identification of pathogens-Oxidase, PPA, TSI, Bile Solubility, Optochin, Bacitracin,
8 Pyocin typing.
9 Assignments – Epidemiaology – Tuberculosis, AIDS, Malaria, Campylobacter, Legionella infections. Listeria.
10 Problems on Mendelian genetics.
1. Qualitative tests for Carbohydrates – Benedicts, Molisch
2. Qualitative test for proteins – Biuret
3. Qualitative test for Amno acids _ Ninhydrin
4. Qualitative test for RNA and DNA – Oreinol and DPA
5. Production of Biomass – Fungal, Bacterial, Yeast
6. Determination of Dry and wet weight
7. Estimation of Proteins by Biuret method
8. Estimation of DNA – DPA method
9. Estimation of RNA – Orcinol method
10. Estimation of Reducing sugar – DNSA method
11. Estimation of Amino acids – Ninhydrin method
12. Effect of variables on enzyme activity (invertase from yeast),
Temperature, pH, Substrate concentration, Enzyme concentration, Determination of KM of invertase (Lineweaver Burke plot, Michaelis-Menton graph)
13. Purification of enzyme – Ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis. Measurement of enzyme activity before and after purification (DNSA method)
14. Problems based on bioenergetics.
15. Problems based on biostatistics
a) Linear regression (LB),
b) Lonlinear regression (MM)
c) Use of EXCEL / similar packages
1. Use of pH meter
2. Determination of max of a coloured solution
3. Verification of Beer – Lambert's Law Linear range, extinction coefficient and Molar extinction coefficient
4. Density gradient centrifugation (Yeast and bacteria)
5. Paper chromatography of amino acids
6. TLC of sugars –
7. Column chromatography DEAE- Cellulose
8. Electrophoresis of proteins : SDS-PAGE
9. Electrophoresis of DNA
10. TDP and TDT.
11. Food preservative – sugar and salt (MIC)
12. Selective isolation of food spoilage organisms
13 Microbial analysis of milk DMC, SPC, Coliform count, spore bearers, RRT, MBRT.
14. Isolation of Azotobacter and Rhizobia and preparation of biofertilizer.
15. Isolation of antibiotic producer and determination of antibacterial spectrum (Wilkin's agar overlay, Agar streak and Agar Strip)
17. Visit to Biogas plant
18. Demonstration of Vermicomposting.
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