F.Y.B.A Paper – I (SEMESTER - I)
102 Economic Theory (Micro Economics-I)
Unit I : Introduction
Meaning, nature, scope, significance and limitations of micro economics. Ceteris
Paribus – use and significance. Concept and types of equilibrium: stable, unstable,
static and dynamic equilibrium – partial equilibrium and general equilibrium,
positive economics and normative economics, managerial economics. Basic
concepts – wealth, welfare and scarcity. Basic tools of economics analysis
(equations and functions, graphs and diagrams, slope and intercepts)
Unit II: Consumers Behaviour and Demand
Marishallian Approach: Equi-marginal utility, Law of demand- Determinants of
demand. Elasticity of demand and its measurement: Price- Income- Cross and
Promotional elasticity of demand. Consumer’s Surplus.
3 Hicksian Approach: Indifference curves – properties of Indifference Curve,
Consumer’s Equilibrium, Price effect, Income effect and substitution effect -
Derivation of demand from Price Consumption Curve (PCC) – Giffen’s paradox.
Samuelson Approach: Revealed Preference Theory.
Unit III: Production and Cost Analysis
Concept of production function: short run and long run - Cobb-Douglass
production function. Isoquants - iso-cost line - producer’s equilibrium. Law of
variable proportion and Law of returns to scale - Economies of scale - Economies
Concepts of costs: Money and real cost, Opportunity cost, Social cost, Private cost-
Derivation of short run and long run cost curves – Learning curve.
F.Y.B.A Paper – I (SEMESTER - II)
UAECO 102 Economic Theory (Micro Economics-I) 3
Unit I : Theory of Firm:
Concepts of revenue: Total Revenue, Average Revenue and Marginal Revenue –
Relationship between TR, AR and MR under perfect and imperfect competition -
AR, MR and elasticity. Objectives of a Firm–Analysis of Equilibrium of a firm:
TC-TR Approach - MC-MR Approach – Break-Even Analysis
Unit II : Market Structure:
Perfect Competition: Features - Short-run Equilibrium of the Firm and Industry -
Long Run Equilibrium of the Firm and Industry. Monopoly: Features - Short-run
Equilibrium of the Monopolist under Different Cost Conditions and Long-run
Equilibrium of the Monopolist - Discrimination Monopoly: Equilibrium under
Discriminating Monopoly - Dumping.
Monopolistic Competition: Features, Equilibrium in the Short-run and Long-run –
Wastages under Monopolistic Competition – Oligopoly: Features of Oligopoly.
Unit III : Pricing Methods and Capital Budgeting:
Pricing Methods: Marginal Cost Pricing - Full Cost Pricing - Multi product pricing
– Limit Pricing: Bain’s Model.
Meaning and importance of Capital Budgeting: Methods of Capital Budgeting: Pay
Back Period [PBP]- Net Present Value [NPV].
SYBA : Indian economy
ECOMA-401 Macro Economics- Paper - II
Unit I : Introduction:
Meaning and scope of Macro Economics - Concepts of National Income
aggregates: GNP, NNP, GDP, NDP, Per Capita Income, Personal Income and
Disposal Income - Methods and difficulties in Measurement of National Income -
Circular flow of Income : closed (Two and Three sector Models) open economy
models - Trade cycles : Features and phases
Unit II : Consumption, Investment and Employment
Say’s law of market - Theory of Effective demand – Consumption function -
Investment function – Marginal Efficiency of Capital and rate of interest -
Investment multiplier and Accelerator.
Unit III: Money and inflation:
Meaning and function of Money - Supply of money: Constituents – Determinants
of money supply. Velocity of circulation of money - RBI’s approach to
measurement of money supply (Liquidity measures).
Demand for Money: Classical - Neo-classical - Keynesian- Friedman’s approaches.
Inflation: Types – Causes – Effects – Measures to control inflation.
ECOMA-401 Macro Economics- Paper - II
Unit I : Banking in India
Commercial Banks: Functions - Multiple Credit Creation Process and its
limitations - Performance of commercial banks since 1991.
Central Bank: Functions of RBI – Monetary policy: Objectives and Instruments –
Narsimham Committee Report of 1998.
Unit II : Financial Markets:
Money Market: Components – Instruments - Features of Indian Money market.
Money market reforms in India since 1991.
Capital market: Role of capital market in economic development, Structure of
capital market in India (Primary and Secondary markets), Mutual funds. Securities
and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
Unit III : Public Finance:
Nature and Scope of Public Finance - Sources of Public Revenue – Canons of
taxation – Merits and demerits of direct and indirect taxes. Public Expenditure:
Classification – Causes of growing public expenditure. Public debt: Types,
Burdens of internal and external public debt – Concepts of deficit.
ECOIE-302 INDIAN ECONOMY PAPER-I
UNIT - I: Economic Growth (Pre and Post Reform Period) (15)
Changes in the growth of national income and per capita income – Changes in the sectoral
composition of national income – changes in the occupational structure – Changes in the
demographic features during 1951 – 2011 - India as an emerging economy in the world -
Problem of poverty and income inequalities – Nature of unemployment – Causes of inflation –
Policy measures to reduce poverty, income inequalities and inflation –
UNIT - II: Agriculture and the economy (15)
Changing Role of agriculture in the economy– Land reforms – New Agricultural Strategy –
Trends in production and productivity – Rural credit and role of rural financial institutions –
Agricultural Marketing – Agricultural price policy – WTO and agriculture – Issue of Food
UNIT - III: Secondary and Tertiary Sector (15)
Trends in industrial production and productivity during 1951 -91 – Industrial policy 1991 and
changes in the industrial structure – Disinvestment policy – Significance of small scale industries
– SSI Policy of the Government of India – Special Economic Zones – WTO and Industry
Service sector in the process of economic development - Contribution of services to GDP growth
in India – Role of infrastructure in economic development
ECOIE-302 INDIAN ECONOMY PAPER-I
UNIT - I: Financial System and the Economy (15)
Structure of the Indian financial system – Nationalisation of commercial banks – Performance of
commercial banks in the pre-reform period – Banking Sector reforms 1991 and 1998 – Progress
of scheduled commercial banks since 1991 – Measures of money supply and Liquidity -
Constituents of the money market – Money market reforms – Monetary policy of the RBI –
Growth of capital market since 1980 – Capital market reforms – Role of SEBI – Growth of
insurance business in India – Role of IRDA
UNIT - II: Finances of the Government of India (15)
Union Government Budget – Appraisal of trends in revenue and expenditure in the pre and postreform
period – Tax revenues of Government of India - Tax reforms and changes in tax policy
since 1991 – Changes in the composition of expenditure of Government of India - Fiscal Deficits
– Trends in internal and external liabilities of Government of India – Appraisal of Union
Government transfer of financial resources to the States – Recommendations of The Thirteenth
Finance Commission – Role of fiscal policy
UNIT - III: International Trade and Payments (15)
Appraisal of India’s foreign trade and payments before 1991 – Analysis of trends in value,
composition and direction of exports and imports since 1991- India’s Balance of Payments since
1991 – Exchange rate policy and Rupee convertibility – Trends in capital flows since 2001
Advanced Economic Theory
Module - 1 : Price and Oligopoly: (14 lectures)
Features of Oligopoly market, Cournet’s model, Kinked demand curve hypothesis, collusion: cartels and price leadership, Game theory: Nash equilibrium and prisoner’s dilemma.
Module - 2: Theory of Factor Pricing: ( 12 lectures)
Factor pricing in perfectly and imperfectly competitive markets, economic rent, wage determination under collective bargaining, bilateral Monopoly, loan able funds theory, risk uncertainty and profits.
Module - 3 : General Equilibrium and social welfare: (12 lectures)
Interdependence in the economy, general equilibrium and its existence, the pareto optimality criterion of social welfare, marginal conditions for a pareto optimal resource allocation, perfect competition and pareto optimality.
Module - 4 : Economics of Information: (12 lectures)
Economics of search: search costs, information failure and missing markets. Asymmetric information: the market for lemons. Adverse selection: insurance markets. Market signaling: the problem of moral hazard. The principle-agent problem. The efficiency wage theory.
Module - 1 : IS-LM Model: v (14 lectures)
Money market equilibrium: the LM curve, product market equilibrium: the IS curve; the IS and LM curves combined- Factor influencing equilibrium income and the interest rate: monetary influences: shift in the LM schedule- real influences: shift in the IS schedule; relative effectiveness of monetary and fiscal policy: policy effectiveness and the slope of the IS schedule- policy effectiveness and the slope of the LM schedule; derivation of the macroeconomic (aggregate) demand curve from the IS-LM schedules- aggregate supply and the Philip’s curve, determination of price level and aggregate output using AD and AS curves.
Module - 2 :Open Economy Macroeconomics: (12 lectures)
Fixed vs flexible exchange rate regime, determination of exchange rate in free markets. Mundell-Fleming model- the impossible trinity. The concept of real exchange rate, purchasing power parity theory. Disequilibrium in the balance of payments and balance of payments adjustments: devaluation, reduction, direct controls, currency crises.
Module - 3 : International Trade (12 lectures)
Classical theory of international trade, Haberler’s theory of opportunity cost; Heckscher-ohlin theory of trade; law of reciprocal demand and offer curves- equilibrium price in international trade; free trade versus protection in trade policy; tariffs and their effects.
Module - 4 : Public Economics (12lectures)
Market failures and role of the state, public goods, public expenditure theory; free rider problem, efficiency condition for public goods; Principles of taxation; horizontal and vertical equity, ability to pay and benefit approach, tax incidence, excess burden of taxation.
Growth and Development
Term – I
Module - 1 : Meaning of Development and Relevant Concepts: (12 lectures)
Distinction between growth and development, human development, human development index, gender development index, sen’s capabilities approach, environmental sustainability and development, market and state as agencies of development.
Module - 2 : Classical Theories of Development: (14 lectures)
Rostow’s stages of growth, Harrod-Domar growth model, structural change and Lewi’s model of unlimted supplies of lobour and Solow’s growth theory.
Module - 3 : Contemporary Model of Development and Under development:
Theories of endogenous growth with special reference to Romer’s model, underdevelopment as coordination failure, multiple equilibria, the big push theory and Lebenstence theory of critical minimum efforts.
Module - 4 : Poverty, Inequality and Development: (14 lectures)
Measurement of poverty- absolute and relative, head-count index and poverty gap indices, policy options for alleviation of poverty, measurement of income inequality, economic growth and inequality – Kuzent’s inverted U hypothesis, impact of inequality on
Module - 1 : Population and Human Resources: (14lectures)
Demographic transition causes of high fertility in developing countries- the microeconomic household theory of fertility, consequences of high fertility, approaches to population policy, contribution of education and health to economic growth and development, role of health in economic development.
Module - 2 : Urbanization and Informal sector: (12lectures)
Causes and effects of urbanization, Harris-Todaro model of rural-urban migration, migration and development, policies for the urban informal sector, women in the informal sector, the microfinance revolution.
Module - 3 : Agricultural Transformation and Rural Development: (10 lectures)
Role of agriculture in economic development, rural credit markets, organized and unorganized, policies for rural development, agriculture and the WTO.
Module - 4 : International Aspects of Development: (14 lectures)
Trade strategies for development; inward looking and outward looking, financing of balance of payments deficits, foreign direct investment and multinational corporations, foreign portfolio investments and developing countries, role of IMF and the World bank- stabilization and structural adjustment programmes.
(Theory 80 marks and Project 20marks)
Module - 1 : Features of Rural Economics
Characteristics and composition of rural economy, linkages of farm and non-farm sectors, indicators of rural development, concepts of agri-preneurship and agribusiness, agriculture and allied activities- fisheries, horticulture and floriculture and forestry.
Module - 2 : Theoretical Perspectives:
Fei-Ranis model, Kuzent’s curve, Human development index, Human poverty index, spread and backwash effects, Theory of dualism, balanced and unbalanced growth.
Module - 3 : India’s Agricultural Economy
Role and importance of agriculture in economic development, trends in agricultural growth and productivity, agricultural instability and pricing policy, new agricultural strategy, sustainable agriculture, emerging trends in agricultural economy- dry land farming and biotechnology techniques.
Module - 4 : Rural Industrialization
Agro industries, Agro-based industries, food processing industries, Dairy, sugar and cotton textiles, Importance of district industrial sectors, configuration of Indian Industries, FICCI and small and medium enterprises.
Module - 5 : Rural Infrastructure
Importance of rural electrification, Irrigation, Transport and Communication, markets, education health and sanitation, provision of urban amenities in rural areas.
Module - 6 : Institutions for Rural Development
Co-operative movement, National cooperative development corporation, Role of NGOs, Regional Rural banks, NABARD, Micro finance and self-help groups.
Elementary mathematics and statistics for economic analysis
Economy of Maharashtra (in place of rural development)
Elementary mathematics and statistics for economic analysis
Module - 1 : Derivatives and their applications
Limits and continuity, Derivatives, High order derivatives, Increasing and decreasing functions, Concave, convex functions and inflexion point, Optimization of economic functions
Module - 2 : Multivariate functions
Functions of several variables and partial derivatives, Second order partial derivatives, Optimization of multi variable functions, Constrained optimization with lagrange multipliers, Total derivatives, Marginal productivity , income and cross-price elasticities of demand, Homogeneous production functions and returns to scale, Optimization of the Cobb-Douglas production function
Module - 3 : Integral calculus
Integration, Economic applications, Definite integral , Present value of cash flows, Consumers and producers surplus, Learning curve
Module - 4 : Linear algebra
Matrices and basic operations, Rank of a matrix, Inverse of a matrix, Cramers rule, Characteristics roots and vectors (eigen values and eigen vectors), Linear programming problem.
Module - 5 : Measures of central Tendency and Dispersion
Arithmetic mean median and mode, Concepts of range, quartile deviation, mean deviation, standard deviation coefficient variation, Commercial statistics : brokerage, commission and insurance
Module - 6 : Correlation and Regression
Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Method of least squares and regression lines, Regression coefficients
Module - 7 : Index numbers and time series
Simple and composite index numbers, Construction and uses of index numbers, Lasperey’s Paasches, And Fischer’s index numbers, Cost of living index numbers – real income- wholesale price index number, Splicing of index numbers, Components of time series, Estimation and forecasting of trend by least squares method
Module - 8 : Elementary Probability Theory
Sample space and events, Mutually exclusive, exhaustive and complimentary events , Conditional probability, Theorems on addition and multiplication of probabilities, Problems on calculating probability, Binomial probability distribution, Normal distribution
(Theory of 80marks and project 20marks)
Computer applications to economic analysis
Entrepreneurship and small industries management
Module 1 : Introduction to corporate finance
Corporate finance : meaning, principles, objectives, tools and limitations Agency theory,Role and functions of a financial manager, Organization of financial functions, Corporate governance
Module 2 : Sources of Corporate finance
Raising funds by private and publily traded firms, Short and long term : equity and debentures, Internal and external sources: retained earnings, equity v/s debt financing, Banks and Institutional debt : Hybrid and lease financing
Module 3 : Dividend Policy
Dividends – meaning, types, process, determinants and policies, Relevance / Irrelevance of dividends, Low and high pay-out ratios, Alternatives to cash dividends : scrip dividends, stock repurchases and stock splits
Module 4 : Market for corporate securities
The capital market: meaning, role, types – primary and secondary, Features and importance : primary and secondary markets, Regulation of stock market : SEBI, Investor protection
Module 5 : Capital budgeting and investment decisions
Capital budgeting: meaning, scope, significance, process and limitations, Time value of money, Costs and benefits : basic principles, Methods of investment appraisal : pay back period(PBP), average rate of return(ARR), net present value(NPV) and internal rate of return(IRR) methods. Comparison between NPV and IRR
Module 6 : Financial statements and Ration analysis
Financial statements: basic concepts, contents and composition balance sheet and income statement.Ratio analysis: meaning, significance and types – liquidity, leverage, turnover, profitability and valuation
International Economics: Theory and Policy
(in place of International Policy and Practice)
Evolution of Economic ideas
(in place of History of Economic thought)
Evolution of Economic Ideas
Module 1 : Pre-Classical School
General outline of mercantilist theories – Physiocracy : Basic principles and policies : natural order, tableau economique.
Module 2 : Classical political economy
Origin of Classicism:
Adam Smith: Division of labor, Theory of value Economic development
David Ricardo : Theory of value, Theory of distribution, Doctrine of rent, Views on international Trade, Theory of economic development and Stationary state, Critique by sraffa
T.R.Malthus: Theory of population and Theory of Gluts - Criticism of Classicism
Karl Marx: Materiaslistic interpretation of history, Labor theory of value and surplus value . F.List – Historical Critics.
Module 3 : Reconstruction of Economic Science
Jevons, Menger, Walras, E.Bohm Bawerk, Wicksell, Fisher
Module 4 : Neo- Classical School
Marshall: Consumer Surplus, Tax bounty analysis, External Economies, Quasi-rent, Role of time element in value
Pigou: Welfare economics
Module 5 : American Economic thought
Institutionalism: Veblen – Theory of the leisure class – Commons –
Frank Knight : Theory of profit – risk and uncertainity
Module 6 : New Economics
Schumpeter : Vision of development and the demise of capitalism
Keynesianism : Principle of Effective demand, consumption function, multiplier, investment function, liquidity preference theory of interest , role of fiscal policy, uncertainty and role of expectations.
Module 7 : Post Keynesian Developments
Hayek – Supply side economics : Arthur laffer, Evans – Monetarism
Milton Friedman Don Patinkin – An overview of the new classical economics: Ratex JF Muth, Robert Lucas, Sargent and Wallace.
Module 8 : Nobel Prize winners in economics
Myrdal (1974), A.K.Sen (1998), Joseph Stiglitz (2001), Paul Krugman (2008)
International Economics : Theory and Policy
(In place of international policy and practice)
Module 1: International Trade theories
Importance of international economics, Benefits of foreign trade and foreign investment.
Comparative cost advantage theory including Taussig’s restatement, Misconceptions about comparative advantage: Pauper labor argument.
Factor endowments theory of international trade : H.O. theorem, Empirical evidence on H.O. model,Leontiff’s paradox.
Module 2 : International Factor Movements
Factors determining labor and capital mobility, International trends in labor mobility and migration, Wage convergence.
Trends in foreign investment: Aid, portfolio investment, FDI- Experience with MNCs.
Module 3 : Trade Policies
Free trade and Efficiency, Case for Protectionism, Strategies of trade and growth: import – substituting industrialization and export – orientated industrialization.
Trade liberalization under WTO, controversies in trade policies – with reference to labor standards, environment, issues under TRIPS and GATS.
Dispute settlement body of WTO.
Module 4 : Instruments of trade policy
Tariff : Meaning, implications/ effects and illustrations/ case studies (to be discussed in classroom),
theory of optimum tariff, theory of customs union : Trade creation and Trade diversion.
Non-Tariff barriers : Export subsidies, import quotas, voluntary export restraint, preferential trading agreement, commodity agreements : Meaning, effects, and case studies (to be discussed in classroom).
Module 5 : Balance of Payments
Structure of balance of payments, accounting principles in balance of payments (double entry system),fundamental balance of payments identity.
Balance of payments disequilibrium – causes and types.
Methods to reduce deficit in Balance of payments, effectiveness of devaluation: Marshall- Lerner Condition.
Module 6 : Foreign exchange market
Meaning and functions, Nature and participants, role of dealers.
Exchange rate theories : Balance of payment theory and purchasing power parity theory.
Spot and forward rates, exchange rate risks : causes and management. (forward rate agreement , swap and currency options).
Module 7 : International monetary systems
Overview of gold standard system, collapse of Bretton Woods system.
Fixed versus flexible exchange rate system, emergence of floating exchange rate system : meaning, role of central bank, question of monetary policy autonomy.
International liquidity and role of IMF.
Currency crisis: meaning and effects, East Asian currency crisis, exchange rate experience between oil shocks, 1973 – 1980, lessons of developing country crisis.
Module 8 : Economic integration and trade blocs
Meaning and benefits of economic integration, types of economic integration (free trade area, partial integration, custom union, common market and economic union).
Experience and evaluation of trade blocs: North American free trade area, South American free trade area, oil producing and exporting countries, European Union and South Asian Association for Regional cooperation (SAARC).