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Junior College - Physics

History & Brief Information of the Department of Physics

The department of Physics was established in 1949. It is one of the oldest departments of the college, almost as old as the college itself. It has a dedicated staff of 7 members in the Degree College, 14 members in the Junior college section and 10 non-teaching staff. The department boasts of its well equipped spacious laboratories. The laboratories are regularly upgraded to cater to the demands of the revised syllabi.


Faculty Profile: Junior College- Physics




Mr. S. C. Salagare

27    Yrs

  M.Sc., D.H.E.

Mr. U. R. Ambesange

28    Yrs

  M.Sc., D.H.E.

Mrs. K.V. Bhargava

25    Yrs

  M.Sc., D.H.E., M. Phil,

Mrs. M.S. Dalvi

20    Yrs

  M.Sc., B.E.D.

Mrs. S.S. Kharwadkar

17     yrs

  M.Sc. , B.E.D.

Mr. R. L. Chaube

11    Yrs

  M.Sc. , B.E.D.

Mrs. P.P. Shinde

17    Yrs

  M.Sc. , D.H.E.

Miss. M. R. Govekar

09    Yrs

  M.Sc. , B.E.D.

Mrs. S. P. Thakur

19    Yrs

  M.Sc. , B.E.D.



Std. XI
Paper I
Mechanics and Properties of Matter:

1. Measurements
1.1 Need for measurements
1.2 Units for measurement
1.3 System of units
1.4 S.I units
1.5 Fundamental and derived units
1.6 Dimensional analysis
1.7 Order of magnitude and significant figures
1.8 Accuracy and errors in measurements

2. Scalars and Vectors:
2.1 Addition and subtraction of vectors
2.2 Product of vectors (Scalar product and vector product)

3. Projectile Motion:
3.1 Uniformly accelerated motion along a straight line
3.2 Velocity-time graph and position-time graph
3.3 Equation of the path of a projectile
3.4 Time of flight
3.5 Horizontal range
3.6 Maximum height of a projectile

4. Force:
4.1 Types of force
4.2 General idea of Gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear forces from daily               
4.3 Law of conservation of momentum
4.4 Elastic and inelastic collisions
4.5 Inertial mid non-inertial frames
4.6 Moment of force
4.7 Couple and properties of couple
4.8 Centre of mass
4.9 Centre of gravity
4.10 Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body

5. Friction in Solids and Liquids:
5.1 Origin and nature of frictional forces
5.2 Laws of static friction
5.3 Laws of kinetic friction (sliding and rolling)
5.4 Viscosity
5.5 Pressure due to fluid column
5.6 Pascal’s law and its applications
5.7 Effect of gravity on fluid pressure
5.8 Stream-line flow
5.9 Turbulent flow
5.10 Viscous force
5.11 Newton’s formula
5.12 Stoke’s law
5.13 Equation of terminal velocity
5.14 Reynold’s number
5.15 Bernoulli's principle and its application


6. Sound Waves
6.1 Waves and oscillations
6.2 Progressive waves (longitudinal and transverse)
6.3 Characteristics of transverse waves
6.4 Characteristics of longitudinal waves
6.5 Sound as longitudinal wave motion
6.6 Relation between velocity wavelength and frequency
6.7 Newton’s formula (without derivation) for velocity of sound
6 8 Laplace's correction
6 9 Musical sound and noise
6.10 Musical scale.


7. Thermal Expansion:
7.1 Expansion of solids
7.2 Linear expansion and derivation for coefficient of linear expansion.
7.3 Ideas of areal and volume expansion
7.4 Expansion of liquids - real and apparent (concept only)
7.5 Thermal conduction
7.6 Temperature gradient
7.7 Co-efficient of thermal conductivity.

Paper II

8. Refraction of Light:
8.1 Refraction of monochromatic light.
8.2 Snell’s law.
8.3 Total internal reflection.
8.4 Critical angle.
8.5 Optical fibre.
8.6 Dispersion of light.
8.7 Prism formula.
8.8 Angular dispersion and dispersive power.
8.9 Rainbow.
8.10 Scattering of light.
8.11 Blue colour of sky.
8.12 Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset.

9. Lens:
9.1 Refraction at a single curved surface.
9.2 Lens equation.
9.3 Concept of conjugate foci.
9.4 Magnifying power of a simple microscope.
9.5 Magnifying power of a compound microscope.
9.6 M.P. of a telescope.
9.7 Lens defects-chromatic and achromatic.

Electricity and Magnetism:

10. Electrostatics:
10.1 Frictional electricity.
10.2 Charges and their conservation.
10.3 Coulomb’s law and dielectric constant
10.4 Forces between multiple electric charges.
10.5 Superposition principle of forces.
10.6 Continuous distribution of charges.
10.7 Concept of charge density.
10.8 Electric field intensity due to a point charge.
10.9 Electric potential due to a point charge.
10.10 Relation between electric field intensity and potential.
10.11 Potential difference.
10.12 Volt, electron volt.
10.13 Electric dipole and electric dipole moment (unit and definition).
10.14 Electric lines of force.

11. Current Electricity:
11.1 Ohm’s law.
11.2 Resistance.
11.3 Specific resistance (different materials).
11.4 Temperature dependence of resistance.
11.5 Thermistor.
11.6 Colour code of carbon resistor.
11.7 E.M.F. and internal resistance of a cell.
11.8 Work done by electric current (heating).
11.9 Power in electric current.

12. Magnetic Effect of Electric Current:
12.1 Biot-Savart law.
12.2 Right hand rule.
12.3 Magnetic induction at the centre of a circular coil carrying current.
12.4 Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current.
12.5 Fleming’s left hand rule.
12.6 Force between two long current carrying parallel conductors.
12.7 Definition of ampere.
12.8 Force acting on conductor carrying current in a magnetic field

13. Magnetism:
13.1 General idea of origin of magnetism due to moving charges.
13.2 Equivalence between magnetic dipole and a circular coil carrying electric current.
13.3 Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit.
13.4 Torque acting on magnet in uniform magnetic induction.
13.5 Tangent law.
13.6 Magnetic induction at a point along the axis and equator of a bar magnet.

Modern Physics:

14. Electromagnetic Waves:
14.1 Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative idea only).
14.2 Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
14.3 Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, microwaves, infrared, visible rays, ultraviolet rays,
X-rays gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
14.4 Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.


1.   To find the volume of a sphere and a hollow cylinder by using Vernier callipers.
2.   To measure the diameter of a wire and the thickness of a metal plate by using
Micrometer screw guage.
3.   To measure radius of curvature of spherical surface by using spherometer.
4.   To find the weight of a body by using parallelogram of forces.
5.   To determine co-efficient of static friction.
6.   To determine co-efficient of restitution.
7.   To determine co-efficient of viscosity (Stoke’s method).
8.   To determine co-efficient of linear expansion of solid.
9.   To determine specific resistance by Ohm’s law.
10. To study temperature dependence of thermistor.
11. To determine R.I. of glass/liquid by using travelling microscope.
12. To determine RI. of material of a lens.
13. To study variation of angle of deviation with angle of incidence and to determine RI.  
of material of prism
14. To determine R.I. of liquid by concave mirror.
15. To find focal length of a convex lens by displacement method.
16. To find focal length of a concave lens using convex lens.

Std. XII

Paper I
Mechanics and Properties of Matter:

1. Circular Motion:
1.1 Angular displacement.
1.2 Angular velocity and angular acceleration.
1.3 Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.
1.4 Uniform circular motion.
1.5 Radial acceleration.
1.6 Centripetal and centrifugal force.
1.7 Banking of roads.
1.8 Vertical circular motion.
1.9 Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion.
1.10 Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.

2. Gravitation:
2.1 Newton's law of gravitation.
2.2 Projection of satellite.
2.3 Periodic time
2.4 Statement of Kepler’s three laws of motion.
2.5 Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite resting on the surface of the earth And moving in the circular orbit
2.6 Weightlessness condition in a satellite.
2.7 Variation of 'g’ due to change in altitude, latitude and depth (below the surface of Of earth)
2.8 Communication satellite and uses of satellites.

3. Rotational Motion:
3.1 Definition of moment of inertia.
3.2 K.E. of rotating body.
3.3 Physical significance of M.I.
3.4 Radius of gyration (concept and significance).
3.5 Torque.
3.6 Principle of perpendicular and parallel axes.
3.7 Application of the principles to M.I. of uniform rod, ring, disc, solid cylinder and solid sphere with proof.
3.8 Angular momentum and its conservation.

4. Oscillations:
4.1 Explanation of periodic motion
4.2 Simple harmonic motion.
4.3 Differential equation for linear S.H.M.
4.4 Projection of U.C.M. along a diameter as S.H.M.
4.5 Phase of S.H.M.
4.6 K.E. and P.E. of a particle performing S.H.M.
4.7 Composition of two S.H.M.’s having same period and along the same line (analytical treatment).
4.8 Simple Pendulum.
4.9 Angular S.H.M. and its differential equation.
4.10 Magnet vibrating in the uniform magnetic induction.

5. Elasticity
5.1 Deformation.
5.2 General explanation of elastic property and elasticity.
5.3 Plasticity.
5.4 Definition of stress and strain.
5.5 Hooke’s law.
5.6 Elastic constants Y, K, h and s and relation between them.
5.7 Searle’s method.
5.8 Observation on a wire under applied increasing load
5.9 Work done in stretching a thin uniform wire by calculus method.

6. Surface Tension
6.1 S.T. on the basis of molecular theory.
6.2 Surface energy
6.3 Surface tension
6.4 Angle of contact.
6.5 Capillary and capillary action.
6.6 Effect of impurity and temperature on S.T.


7. Wave Motion:
7.1 Simple harmonic progressive waves.
7.2 Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves.
7.3 Change of phase.
7.4 Superposition of sound waves.
7.5 Formation of beats.
7.6 Doppler effect.

8. Stationary Waves:
8.1 Study of vibrations on string.
8.2 Formation of stationary waves on string.
8.3 Study of vibrations of air columns.
8.4 Forced vibrations.
8.5 Resonance.
8.6 Experiments - sonometer, resonance tube, Melde’s experiment.


9. Kinetic Theory of Gases:
9.1 Concept of an ideal gas.
9.2 Assumptions of kinetic theory.
9.3 Mean free path.
9.4 Derivation for pressure of a gas in the container by using Cartesian co-ordinates
9.5 Derivation of Boyle’s law.
9.6 Specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure.
9.7 Internal and external latent heat.

10. Radiation:
10.1 Absorption, emission, reflection of heat radiation.
10.2 Perfectly black body. .
10.3 Spectrum of a blackbody radiation in terms of wavelength.
10.4 Emissive power and absorptive power.
10.5 Kirchhoff’s law of radiation and its theoretical proof.
10.6 Prevost’s theory of heat exchanges.
10.7 Ritchie’s experiment.
10.8 Stefan’s law.
10.9 Newton’s law of cooling and radiation correction.
10.10 Solar constant and surface temperature of sun

Paper II

11. Wave Theory of Light:
11.1 Wave theory of light
11.2 Huygen’s principle.
11.3 Construction of plane and spherical wave front.
11.4 Wave front and wave normal.
11.5 Refraction at plane surface.
11.6 Polarisation.
11.7 Plane polarised light
11.8 Brewster’s law.
11.9 Nicol prism.
11.10 Polaroids

12. Interference and Diffraction:
12.1 Interference of light.
12.2 Conditions for producing steady interference pattern.
12.3 Young’s experiment.
12.4 Analytical treatment of interference bands.
12.5 Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment.
12.6 Diffraction due to single slit.
12.7 Reyleigh's criterion.
12.8 Resolving power of microscope and telescope.
12.9 Difference between interference and diffraction

Electricity and Magnetism:

13. Electrostatics:
13.1 Gauss’s theorem, proof and applications.
13.2 Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor.
13.3 Energy density of the medium.
13.4 Concept of condenser.
13.5 Capacity of a parallel plate condenser.
13.6 Effect of dielectrics on capacity.
13.7 Energy of a charged condenser.
13.8 Condensers in series and parallel.
13.9 Van -de-Graff generator.

14. Current Electricity:
14.1 Kirchhoff’s laws.
14.2 Wheatstone’s bridge.
14.3 Meterbridge.
14.4 Potentiometer
14.5 Thermoelectricity.
14.6 Seeback effect, Thomson effect and Peltier effect.
14.7 Thermocouple.
14.8 Natural and inversion temperature.

15. Magnetic Effect of Electric Current:
15.1 Ampere’s law and its applications.
15.2 Moving coil galvanometer.
15.3 Ammeter.
15.4 Voltmeter.
15.5 Sensitivity and accuracy of M.C.G.
15.6 Theory and construction of Tangent galvanometer
15.7 Sensitivity and accuracy of T.G.
15.8 Cyclotron.

16. Magnetism:
16.1 Magnetic induction at any point due to a short magnetic dipole.
16.2 Magnetic potential at any paint due to short magnetic dipole.
16.3 Diamagnetism, paramagnetism and ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory
16.4 Curie temperature.

17. Electromagnetic Induction:
17.1 Laws of electromagnetic induction, proof of e = -df / dt.
17.2 Eddy currents.
17.3 Self induction and mutual induction
17.4 Transformer
17.5 Coil rotating in a uniform magnetic field.
17.6 Alternating currents.
17.7 Reactance and impedance.
17.8 Power in a.c. circuit with resistance, inductance and capacitance
17.9 Resonant circuit

Modern Physics

18. Electrons and Photons:
18.1 Discovery of electron
18.2 Charge and mass of electron
18.3 Photoelectric effect
18.4 Einstein's equation
18.5 Photoelectric cell and its application

19. Atoms, Molecules and Nuclei:
19.1 Bhor's Model
19.2 Hydrogen spectrum
19.3 Maser and Laser as light sources
19.4 DeBroglie's hypothesis
19.5 Wavelength of an electron
19.6 Davisson and Germer experiment
19.7 Elementary idea of electron microscope

20. Semiconductor:
20.1 Energy bands in Solids
20.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductor
20.3 P-type and N-type semiconductor
20.4 P-N junction diode
20.5 Rectifiers
20.6 Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
20.7 Solar cell.
20.8 LED.
20.9 Transistor as an amplifier.
20.10 Oscillators.
20.11 Logic gates.

21. Communication

21.1 Space communication
21.2 Ground, sky and space wave propagation
21.3 Satellite communication.
21.4 Applications of remote sensing.
21.5 Line communication.
21.6 Two-wire lines.
21.7 Cables.
21.8 Optical Communication.


1.   To determine ‘g’ by simple pendulum.
2.   Determination of force constant and potential energy of the oscillating system.
3.   To determine Young’s modulus of the given material by Searle’s apparatus.
4.   Sonometer-Verification of first law of vibrating string.
5.   Sonometer-Verification of second law of vibrating string.
6.   Determination of velocity of sound in air at room temperature using resonance tube.
7.   Melde’s experiment - determination of unknown frequency (Parallel or Perpendicular position).
8.   Surfacetensioncfwaterhcapi1laryrisemethodusingtravellingmicroscope.
9.   To verify Newton's law of cooling
10. To determine BH by using tangent galvanometer.
11.  Laws of resistance in series /parallel by using Meterbridge.
12.  Resistance of galvanometer by Kelvin’s method.
13.  Comparison of e.m.f.s by using potentiometer (E1/E2).
14.  Internal resistance of a cell by using potentiometer.
15.  Determination of current sensitivity of M.C.G
16.  To study the characteristics of P-N junction diode (Forward bias).
17.  To study the characteristics of zener diode.
18.  To study basic logic gates (TTL ICs).
19.  Full wave rectifier using semiconductor diode

Non-Evaluative Information:
1. Biographies of scientists.
2. Historical prospective of astronomy, universe.
3. Universe.
4. Camera, binoculars.
5. Dimensions of electrical fundamental quantities.
6. Applications of S.H.M. such as spring, liquid in U-tube, metallic block above a platform with vertical spring.
7. Elementary idea of IC’s.
8. Simple pendulum in non-inertial frame (horizontal, vertical and circular).
9. Carnot engine, heat pump, efficiency and coefficient of performance of heat engines.
10. A scattering and concept of nucleus.

Note: In order to develop effective communications skills in students it is advised that the teacher should hold / organize regular classroom student's seminars and whenever possible, excursion may be arranged and should be treated as a part of curriculum but without any extra workload.

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